This week in parenting 14/5/16

Parents
A study has found that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well being and that there are few negative associations between mother's employment and feelings regarding time with children.

Parenting
The use of psychological control by mothers was found to significantly increase children's cortisol levels.

Academic motivation was found to be linked to authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles and to the duration of social media use.

The use of mindfulness techniques by depressed parents were found to be associated with their child's long term mental health outcome, however this association was not found to be significant when other factors were controlled for.

Maternal prenatal distress was found to significantly predict lower cognitive abilities, however this effect was influenced by the level of positive engagement and was not-significant when positive engagement was high.

Home environment and parenting as well as child's attention and activity levels were all found to significantly impact on children's reading and mathematic achievement at the age of 4.5.

study from Korea found that more parental warmth was associated with greater level of teenager's disclosure, greater parental knowledge about activities and lower levels of delinquency.

Lower levels of positive emotionality on the part of the child and higher levels of caregiver overprotection were found to predict the continuance of a temperamental trait associated with shyness and anxiety.


Health
Risk factors for early childhood caries were identified to include not using fluoridated toothpaste, breast or bottle feeding for more than one year, using milk in a bottle when the baby is falling asleep, higher sweet scores on a diet chart and visiting the dentist only when there is a problem.

In families that live on farms, parents who engaged in lax-inconsistent discipline were found to have children who engaged in more unsafe farm practices with the increased risk of injury or death.

A larger waist circumference (>85 percentile) and being obese were both found to be associated with a higher blood pressure.

Parental use of food as a reward at age 6 was found to predict future emotional overeating and food responsiveness while parental encouragement to eat was found to predict an increased enjoyment of food two years later.

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